HiReach Personas and linked pilots

Six (6) personas

Pilot Name: Lincolnshire 'TotalConnect' Solutions

Country: United Kingdom

Institution type: Local authority

Pilot in short: Lincolnshire is a sparsely populated county with lots of small settlements that do not have transport on Sundays and evenings. The local council wish to deploy a "total transport" principle to blend existing services that run in silo. Without integration, current arrangements could see 3 members of the same family travelling in 3 separate vehicles (regular PT services, school and non-emergency health transport) to the same destination. All of these services use specific software product, each system holding a piece of the jigsaw puzzle independent of each other. The challenge is to build integrated (or interfaced) software that would allow the local council to carry out joint journey scheduling and sharing of vehicle resources. Such approach could revolutionise transport opportunities within rural areas. Local public transport providers are small and "family run", so they cannot afford investment into vehicle tracking, telematics, RTPI systems etc.


Pilot Name:Platform for blending mobility services in Beja

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:Beja comprise a large territory and very low pop. density. Population don't have mobility options for travelling in the afternoon, evening, for leisure, sport or even for basic needs. The challenge is to create a digital platform where all the main local entities (NGO's, fire brigades, health-related institutions, public bodies and public transport operator) would upload their transportation resources (vehicles and drivers) and paths so to better coordinate available resources and match them with demand This platform could provide to the municipality access to KPI about operation and help to design a more inclusive PT service (lead to the decision of bus stops, service frequencies, etc) The platform should be:
- demand responsive to any device and with an attractive layout
- allow consultation of several operational reports
- optimize routes and schedules
- display routes and stops geo-based
- offer a front-office for drivers and citizens and a back office for the platform managers
- differentiate the access according to the profile of the users


Pilot Name:Managing parking places for disabled people in Funchal

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:In Funchal, an outermost region of Europe, public transport fleet does not offer, in most cases, a convenient transport solution to mobility-impaired citizens, which forces them to own and drive a private vehicle. Therefore, its important to offer dedicated parking places for people with disabilities, which according to the latest census, account to 7,2% of the population living in Funchal. The challenge lies in the development sensors that could help the municipality to better manage the parking places for people with disabilities and to offer new features about disabled people parking slots in the existing municipal app.


Pilot Name:Seamless public transport solutions for disabled people

Country:Romania

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:Smooth access of disabled people to trams and buses is difficult for several different reasons. One of them is related with the on-board equipment which could make mobility-impaired people life much easier and independent. Law enforcement of parking places dedicated for people with disabilities is also an area that could be improved. Both the municipality of Timisoara (Romania) and the local Public transport company are fully committed to work in order to ensure this segment of the population has point-to-point safe travel options to move around the city.


Pilot Name:Offering better accessibility for cultural and occasional activities to rural residents

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:Most cultural events are located in the city centre, during the evenings and on weekends, precisely the time where there is no public transport connection. People with no access to a car are thus prevented from attending cultural events. This pilot should be set in order to offer combined transport solutions that meet those needs. Ideally, such new travel arrangements should be based on a technological tool for booking and payment and the fares should be integrated in the overall monthly pass or in any other convenient fare mechanism.


Pilot Name:Mobility solutions for less mobile citizens of Gent

Country:Belgium

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:People with reduced mobility and the elderly have don't get where they want to go which can lead to loneliness and isolation, not having access to basic services. They are prevented from walking and are not fit to cycle. They also lack digital skils. Transport options for this people exist, but demand exceeds capacity and supply is fragmented. The options are insufficiently coordinated and can be planned and organised more efficiently.


Pilot Name:All Aboard

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:For non-regular public transport users, taking a bus is not always straightforward. The network is dense and difficult to understand, the schedules depend upon variable traffic circumstances and the current available information does not meet some user’s needs. Google has facilitated access to this information though their portal, however the information they provide is not yet fully inclusive. Hence, they do not offer value to certain segments of the population who require additional layers of information. This is the case of blind citizens who doesn’t have the chance to identify the buses as they approach a bus stop. Similarly, a wheelchair user might be prevented to read the information displayed in the bus stop. In the same way, getting on board is often difficult for anyone carrying a baby buggy or a wheelchair.

Pilot Name:Public Transport: First Response not Last Resort

Country:United Kingdom

Institution type: Local authority

Pilot in short:Lincoshire introduced in 2001 an on-demand responsive transport (DRT) service, branded as `CallConnect`.The service now carries over 320,000 passengers per annum. In 2014, the Authority launched the `Open DRT` Online booking portal in partnership with DDS/Mobisoft who supply the scheduling and dispatch system for CallConnect. This portal allows passengers to submit and cancel journeys online with an element of automation however five years on, the system is now showing its age and has only limited functionality. For example, passengers are not able to view vehicle availability easily, vehicle tracking is very limited, and passengers cannot see fares or pay for their journey online. Currently the portal is only available through a web browser and must be in desktop format as no mobile capability has been developed. Startups are called to introduce new sought-after functionalities and adapt the portal to a mobile app.


Pilot Name:Unique mobility package in Torres Vedras

Country:Portugal

Institution type: Local authority

Pilot in short:The gist of the pilot lies in seizing existing transport options (from private car owners or from local associations) and reorganizing them in a way that elderly people that need to attend medical appointments have a proper mobility solution. This solution should be combined and integrated with the regular PT services so than people can look at it as an unique mobility package.


Pilot Name:Digital Access 4 All

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Public transport operator

Pilot in short:The public transport operator operates in an area where journey planners are not offered. The challenge is to develop one which cna be comprhensensive and adapted to the user's characteristics (user's physical and cognitive aspects, and mobility and transport needs). Thus, the information and routes made available to a young user will differ from that made available to an elderly user. Differences in information can be in terms of colours, buttons, navigation logic. Similarly, routes may be different, for example, a person with reduced mobility may be favoured with less transfers.


Pilot Name:Flexible and shared taxi service

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:Basically, the challenge is twofold: to reduce trips with zero passengers (optimize supply) and to boost the shared use of the taxis (maximize demand).


Pilot Name:A journey planner customized to elderly people needs

Country:Greece

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:The population of the greek municipality of Kessariani, located in the vicinities of Athens, is growing. It features a large share od immigrants and elderly peope. The challenge they bring to Hireach is to help becoming an elderly friendly neighbourhood/municipality. One of the steps that can be made to seek that objective is to tailor the available transport transport options to the needs of the elderly in terms of the available routes and types of vehicles. A journey planner for elderly people that brings these two characteristics together is envisaged (routes and vehicles that suit eldery people needs)


Pilot Name:Mobility solutions for less mobile citizens of Gent

Country:Belgium

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:People with reduced mobility and the elderly have don't get where they want to go which can lead to loneliness and isolation, not having access to basic services. They are prevented from walking and are not fit to cycle. They also lack digital skils. Transport options for this people exist, but demand exceeds capacity and supply is fragmented. The options are insufficiently coordinated and can be planned and organised more efficiently.

Pilot Name:Tackling transport poverty in a capital city: the Lisbon case

Country:Portugal

Institution type:PT operator

Pilot in short:The challenge brought by the PT Operator of Lisbon, Portugal focuses on tackling ticket evasion, which is more common in poor areas of the city and that tend to create a bias when the operator looks into demand for planning reasons. Those that incur in ticket evasion may benefit in the shorter term from not paying their tariffs but in the longer run may be penalised by lower service levels, as they become 'invisible' to the operators which will then design and plan services according to data of ridership that does not reflect true demand levels and user needs.


Pilot Name: Lincolnshire 'TotalConnect' Solutions

Country: United Kingdom

Institution type: Local authority

Pilot in short: Lincolnshire is a sparsely populated county with lots of small settlements that do not have transport on Sundays and evenings. The local council wish to deploy a "total transport" principle to blend existing services that run in silo. Without integration, current arrangements could see 3 members of the same family travelling in 3 separate vehicles (regular PT services, school and non-emergency health transport) to the same destination. All of these services use specific software product, each system holding a piece of the jigsaw puzzle independent of each other. The challenge is to build integrated (or interfaced) software that would allow the local council to carry out joint journey scheduling and sharing of vehicle resources. Such approach could revolutionise transport opportunities within rural areas. Local public transport providers are small and "family run", so they cannot afford investment into vehicle tracking, telematics, RTPI systems etc.


Pilot Name:Public Transport: First Response not Last Resort

Country:United Kingdom

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:Lincoshire introduced in 2001 an on-demand responsive transport (DRT) service, branded as `CallConnect`.The service now carries over 320,000 passengers per annum. In 2014, the Authority launched the `Open DRT` Online booking portal in partnership with DDS/Mobisoft who supply the scheduling and dispatch system for CallConnect. This portal allows passengers to submit and cancel journeys online with an element of automation however five years on, the system is now showing its age and has only limited functionality. For example, passengers are not able to view vehicle availability easily, vehicle tracking is very limited, and passengers cannot see fares or pay for their journey online. Currently the portal is only available through a web browser and must be in desktop format as no mobile capability has been developed. Startups are called to introduce new sought-after functionalities and adapt the portal to a mobile app.


Pilot Name:Digital Access 4 All

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Public transport operator

Pilot in short:The public transport operator operates in an area where journey planners are not offered. The challenge is to develop one which cna be comprhensensive and adapted to the user's characteristics (user's physical and cognitive aspects, and mobility and transport needs). Thus, the information and routes made available to a young user will differ from that made available to an elderly user. Differences in information can be in terms of colours, buttons, navigation logic. Similarly, routes may be different, for example, a person with reduced mobility may be favoured with less transfers.


Pilot Name:Connecting the fields: urban-rural commuting in Varvares

Country:Greece

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:The case submitted focuses in Varvares, Greece, an area that is outside the city of Veria. Being an affordable place to live, accommodates an important number of immigrants and low-income people. However, the lack of connectivity with the city and with the (agricultural) fields, keep the ones with no access to a car away from the opportunities. New transportation schemes are required for such a sparsely populated and deprived area.


Pilot Name:A journey planner customized to elderly people needs

Country:Greece

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:The population of the greek municipality of Kessariani, located in the vicinities of Athens, is growing. It features a large share od immigrants and elderly peope. The challenge they bring to Hireach is to help becoming an elderly friendly neighbourhood/municipality. One of the steps that can be made to seek that objective is to tailor the available transport transport options to the needs of the elderly in terms of the available routes and types of vehicles. A journey planner for elderly people that brings these two characteristics together is envisaged (routes and vehicles that suit eldery people needs)


Pilot Name:Diffreach: Different ways to reach us/out

Country:Luxembourg

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:Differdange, third largest city in Luxembourg with 27,300 inhabitants, is situated near the borders with Belgium and France. Half of the population are foreigners, which represents an amazing opportunity in terms of diversity but as well a challenge for mobility. Insufficient access to basic information, challenged even more by multilingualism, and few adaptations for people with special needs are two of the biggest challenges, the commune and city of Differdange are facing. A virtual travel assistant would be needed to guide, for example blind people, with audio signals. In addition, a big influx of cross-border commuters increases the traffic within the commune and there is not enough change between different stakeholders (e.g. no platform for bottom up citizen approaches like local carpooling). The non-sufficient technological resources and the difficulty of designing a solution for all approaches are challenging.

Pilot Name:Tackling transport poverty in a capital city: the Lisbon case

Country:Portugal

Institution type:PT operator

Pilot in short:The challenge brought by the PT Operator of Lisbon, Portugal focuses on tackling ticket evasion, which is more common in poor areas of the city and that tend to create a bias when the operator looks into demand for planning reasons. Those that incur in ticket evasion may benefit in the shorter term from not paying their tariffs but in the longer run may be penalised by lower service levels, as they become 'invisible' to the operators which will then design and plan services according to data of ridership that does not reflect true demand levels and user needs.


Pilot Name:Unique mobility package in Torres Vedras

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:The gist of the pilot lies in seizing existing transport options (from private car owners or from local associations) and reorganizing them in a way that elderly people that need to attend medical appointments have a proper mobility solution. This solution should be combined and integrated with the regular PT services so than people can look at it as an unique mobility package.


Pilot Name:Flexible and shared taxi service

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:Basically, the challenge is twofold: to reduce trips with zero passengers (optimize supply) and to boost the shared use of the taxis (maximize demand).


Pilot Name:New and affordable transport solutions in Fagaras

Country:Romania

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:Public transport services do not offer a convenient and affordable choice for the residents in In Fagaral, a small city in Romania. Most citizens in this area have low-material status which prevent them to use the regular services. New low-cost services need to be found and adapted to a population with a high number of chronic illnesses that need to travel very often to Municipal Hospital. Plus, the entrepreneurs are called to foster a pilot with minibuses, adapted to the narrow streets of the town and to build a convenient information scheme to raise awareness towards existing transport options.


Pilot Name:Connecting the fields: urban-rural commuting in Varvares

Country:Greece

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:The case submitted focuses in Varvares, Greece, an area that is outside the city of Veria. Being an affordable place to live, accommodates an important number of immigrants and low-income people. However, the lack of connectivity with the city and with the (agricultural) fields, keep the ones with no access to a car away from the opportunities. New transportation schemes are required for such a sparsely populated and deprived area.


Pilot Name:Isolated in the crowd

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:The Conjunto Habitacional de Gatões is a paradox! This neighbourhood (685 people living there) is located 5 kms away from Matosinhos’s city centre, but from all purposes it could be located in some remote area. The neighbourhood is stuck in between a major highway, a logistics area and a river. No public transport route serves this location and there are no local stores such as supermarkets, coffee-shops or restaurants. Local inhabitants are essentially forced to use the private car. Yet, since, their income is low, many have clear difficulties to fulfil their mobility needs. The Municipality is looking for innovative business models that could enhance the accessibility. All around the neighbourhood there are many mobility options, such as public transport, taxi, scooters, Uber and others. The difficulty lies on how to ensure the last mile.

Pilot Name:Buses carrying our future

Country:United Kingdom

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:The local authority is looking for creative ways through the use of mobile phones/technology of enticing the youth to see the bus as 'a use don't lose it' element of rural life. Gamification elements could be welcome to overcome misperceptions and peer pressure amongst young people that public transport is not effective nor fashionable


Pilot Name:Untapping solutions for professional students’ needs

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:The transport authority of Médio Tejo, a sparsely populated region in the centre of Portugal, wishes to come up with a solution for the young people attending classes at professional schools. These schools are located in specific areas of the territory and access may constraint and prevent some students to follow their professional long-term ambitions. A new transport arrangement that meets these students needs is necessary.


Pilot Name:Mobility challenges in rural areas in the City of Jastrebarsko

Country:Croatia

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:Considering the inadequate existing transport offer almost 100% of the working population in small locations around Jastrebarsko commute by car (almost all as drivers). The local university calls for new arrangements that can help implementing low-cost public transport schemes that could help decarbonize commuting in the region


Pilot Name:Year-round transport solutions for residents in Naxos island

Country:Greece

Institution type:EU advocacy Platform

Pilot in short:Demand in the island is low and suffers from seasonality. The only option for private transport is taxis, which are expensive. An IT-based solution is required to make use of existing resources, coordinate them and contribute to offer low-cost solutions to residents in the island of Naxos


Pilot Name:Offering better accessibility for cultural and occasional activities to rural residents

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local Authority

Pilot in short:Most cultural events are located in the city centre, during the evenings and on weekends, precisely the time where there is no public transport connection. People with no access to a car are thus prevented from attending cultural events. This pilot should be set in order to offer combined transport solutions that meet those needs. Ideally, such new travel arrangements should be based on a technological tool for booking and payment and the fares should be integrated in the overall monthly pass or in any other convenient fare mechanism


Pilot Name:Turning public transport into the new hype for young people

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local Authority

Pilot in short:A demand-oriented transport service is in force in Médio Tejo since 2013. The system runs reasonably well but it is not popular among the young generation. The challenge lies in boosting this market share and turning the service more appealing and suitable to their needs. A mobile app could eventually do the trigger and nudge young segments to use the service more often. We would also welcome a communication and outreach marketing approach based on the preferences of the mobile app users and on gamification components.


Pilot Name:Helping to connect the deprived population of Kenley

Country:United Kingdom

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:There are a number of challenges to social mobility in Kenley, particularly for the elderly, young, unemployed and low income living, a territory that suffers from its steep topology and low accessibility to public transport. Solutions such as demand responsive transit or personal mobility devices which meet the needs of local residents and address social mobility issues are envisaged.


Pilot Name:New kids in town

Country:Italy

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:Elba Island has a strong tourist industry thanks mostly to its land and sea views. This situation generates high seasonality with lack of public services, such as public transport, notably during winter and overcrowded services throughout the summer period. Seasonality is the biggest issue in mobility and transport challenge in the island and the city has no tools to address the mobility needs of youngsters during the winter seasons. Young people has granted public transport services only to cover the school entrances and exits, avoiding a real-life planning for teenagers and parents. The public transport operator has no interest to run empty busses but, at the same time, they would like to transport more passengers. Such inefficient system could be better-planned making available better services for teenagers and students and increase the tariff revenues for the public transport operator. However, Municipality and the public transport operator have no skills nor tools to find a more efficient and effective way to make mobility demand and offer match together.


Pilot Name:Kids2School

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:The School Bus is a well-known concept. In Braga, the municipality has created four transfer points close to the main entrances to the city from which the school bus leave to the main schools (https://schoolbus.tub.pt/). This measure has proved to significantly decrease traffic and emissions along some of the main roads located around the city and has also led to decrease stress levels amongst parents and help to develop the autonomy and self-confidence of children. This measure has proved to be successful and should be expanded and enhanced. In order to achieve its full potential, the service must be reliable and popular amongst both the school community and parents. In addition to gamification elements that could be introduced to make the service more appealing, the startups are called to develop technology that allows all concerned parties to access to information about existing paths, schedules, preferably in real-time. It would also be important to track the bus along the way to give reassurance that the children arrive on-time and safely to school.


Pilot Name:Smark

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:Getting kids to school is a real nightmare for many parents everywhere and Braga is no exception. Many opt for private car, clogging the roads surrounding the schools in the early morning and late afternoon. The Municipality has provided a set of Kiss & Go parking spaces but they are insufficient and chaos remains. With this pilot the City Council intends to develop a service that helps parents choose the best parking alternative and local authorities to monitor downtime and behaviour patterns.


Pilot Name:Lincolnshire 'TotalConnect' Solutions

Country:United Kingdom

Institution type:PT operator

Pilot in short:Lincolnshire is a sparsely populated county with lots of small settlements that do not have transport on Sundays and evenings. The local council wish to deploy a "total transport" principle to blend existing services that run in silo. Without integration, current arrangements could see 3 members of the same family travelling in 3 separate vehicles (regular PT services, school and non-emergency health transport) to the same destination. All of these services use specific software product, each system holding a piece of the jigsaw puzzle independent of each other. The challenge is to build integrated (or interfaced) software that would allow the local council to carry out joint journey scheduling and sharing of vehicle resources. Such approach could revolutionise transport opportunities within rural areas. Local public transport providers are small and "family run", so they cannot afford investment into vehicle tracking, telematics, RTPI systems etc.


Pilot Name:Multi-modal Journey Planning in Lincolnshire

Country:United Kingdom

Institution type:PT operator

Pilot in short:Lincolnshire has a wide variety of transport solutions that include traditional bus & rail services, Demand Responsive Transport (DRT) schemes such as CallConnect & Dial-a-ride and various voluntary car schemes (VCS). It can thus be difficult to understand the best way to get from A to B. For those who struggle to access or understand how to navigate the internet, finding out the best way of making their journey using multiple forms of transport can be incredibly difficult, especially as there currently isn’t an intuitive app or web-based solution to carry this out. Each individual model has themselves relatively good methods of explaining their own services however when looking at a joined-up service this becomes more problematic. Whilst journey planners such as Traveline exist, they fail to understand the complexities and nuances that such services like DRT & VCS's bring and often deliver false positive results that can lead passengers confused about what is actually being offered to them. Startups are called to put forward an overarching travel planner that would be sufficient to meet the need presented by the complexities of Lincolnshire's transport offer.


Pilot Name:New app, new guize for carpooling schemes

Country:Portugal

Institution type:IT company

Pilot in short:The target group are people who need to perform long-distance trips to go to work in an area that don't have good PT connections. The pilot will be focused on expanding and updating an existing carpooling scheme, by developing an app that could make use of the huge penetration of smartphones in Portugal and of the good communication infrastructure.


Pilot Name:Mobility challenges in rural areas in the City of Jastrebarsko

Country:Croatia

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:Considering the inadequate existing transport offer almost 100% of the working population in small locations around Jastrebarsko commute by car (almost all as drivers). The local university calls for new arrangements that can help implementing low-cost public transport schemes that could help decarbonize commuting in the region


Pilot Name:Isolated in the crowd

Country:Portugal

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:The Conjunto Habitacional de Gatões is a paradox! This neighbourhood (685 people living there) is located 5 kms away from Matosinhos’s city centre, but from all purposes it could be located in some remote area. The neighbourhood is stuck in between a major highway, a logistics area and a river. No public transport route serves this location and there are no local stores such as supermarkets, coffee-shops or restaurants. Local inhabitants are essentially forced to use the private car. Yet, since, their income is low, many have clear difficulties to fulfil their mobility needs. The Municipality is looking for innovative business models that could enhance the accessibility. All around the neighbourhood there are many mobility options, such as public transport, taxi, scooters, Uber and others. The difficulty lies on how to ensure the last mile.


Pilot Name:Inclusive Mobility for Apulian Inner Areas

Country:Italy

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:The Region of Puglia in Southern Italy is one of the HiReach demonstration regions. Much fieldwork has been conducted in this site, allowing the easy identification of several bootlenecks for inclusive mobility that impact negatively on the commuting needs of vulnerable users, specially the ones who lives in rural areas. Their needs are difficult to satisfy with current public transport offer, which is not optimized nor adapted to the dispersed territory context with many overlapping bus lines (served by a fragmented pool of different companies). The region calls for proposals that help to redesign the network, including demand-responsive services.Other major problems identified in the region include: - Poor enhancement of soft mobility services; - Poor level of road networks maintenance that causes desadequate levels of traffic safety; - Absence of proper safety systems on rail infrastructures


Pilot Name:Diffreach: Different ways to reach us/out

Country:Luxembourg

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:Differdange, third largest city in Luxembourg with 27,300 inhabitants, is situated near the borders with Belgium and France. Half of the population are foreigners, which represents an amazing opportunity in terms of diversity but as well a challenge for mobility. Insufficient access to basic information, challenged even more by multilingualism, and few adaptations for people with special needs are two of the biggest challenges, the commune and city of Differdange are facing. A virtual travel assistant would be needed to guide, for example blind people, with audio signals.In addition, a big influx of cross-border commuters increases the traffic within the commune and there is not enough change between different stakeholders (e.g. no platform for bottom up citizen approaches like local carpooling).The non-sufficient technological resources and the difficulty of designing a solution for all approaches are challenging.


Pilot Name:Helping to connect the deprived population of Kenley

Country:United Kingdom

Institution type:Local authority

Pilot in short:There are a number of challenges to social mobility in Kenley, particularly for the elderly, young, unemployed and low income living, a territory that suffers from its steep topology and low accessibility to public transport. Solutions such as demand responsive transit or personal mobility devices which meet the needs of local residents and address social mobility issues are envisaged.


Pilot Name:Ridesharing as an integrated mobility solution for less dense areas

Country:Belgium

Institution type:Consultancy company

Pilot in short:Build a B2C carpooling scheme at neighbourhood level to make use of existing private car capacity. Such carpooling scheme can minimize the impact of reduced PT offer, especially among elderly people that do not drive. It should be integrated with the overal transport offer to encorage car-owners to share their vehicle.

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